Chaperone co-inducer BGP-15 mitigates early contractile dysfunction of the soleus muscle in a rat ICU model

Authors: Cacciani N, Salah H, Li M, Akkad H, Backeus A, Hedstrom Y, Jena BP, Bergquist J, Larsson L
Publisher: Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2019 Dec 4:e13425. doi: 10.1111/apha.13425.


Critical illness myopathy (CIM) represents a common consequence of modern intensive care, negatively impacting patient health and significantly increasing health care costs; however, there is no treatment available apart from symptomatic and supportive interventions. The chaperone co-inducer BGP-15 has previously been shown to have a positive effect on the diaphragm in rats exposed to the intensive care unit (ICU) condition. In this study, we aim to explore the effects of BGP-15 on a limb muscle (soleus muscle) in response to the ICU condition.


Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to the ICU condition for 5, 8 and 10 days and compared with untreated sham-operated controls.


BGP-15 significantly improved soleus muscle fibre force after 5 days exposure to the ICU condition. This improvement was associated with the protection of myosin from post-translational myosin modifications, improved mitochondrial structure/biogenesis and reduced the expression of MuRF1 and Fbxo31 E3 ligases. At longer durations (8 and 10 days), BGP-15 had no protective effect when the hallmark of CIM had become manifest, that is, preferential loss of myosin. Unrelated to the effects on skeletal muscle, BGP-15 had a strong positive effect on survival compared with untreated animals.


BGP-15 treatment improved soleus muscle fibre and motor protein function after 5 days exposure to the ICU condition, but not at longer durations (8 and 10 days) when the preferential loss of myosin was manifest. Thus, long-term CIM interventions targeting limb muscle fibre/myosin force generation capacity need to consider both the post-translational modifications and the loss of myosin.

BGP-15 Protects Mitochondria in Acute, Acetaminophen Overdose Induced Liver Injury

Authors: Sarnyai F, Szekerczés T, Csala M, Sümegi B, Szarka A, Schaff Z, Mandl J.
Publisher: Pathol Oncol Res. 2019 Nov 8. doi: 10.1007/s12253-019-00721-1.

Acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity involves activation of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), mitochondrial damage and ER stress. BGP-15, a hydroximic acid derivative, has been reported to have hepatoprotective effects in APAP overdose induced liver damage. Effect of BGP-15 was further investigated on mitochondria in APAP-overdose induced acute liver injury in mice. We found that BGP-15 efficiently preserved mitochondrial morphology, and it caused a marked decrease in the number of damaged mitochondria. Attenuation of mitochondrial damage by BGP-15 is supported by immunohistochemistry as the TOMM20 label and the co-localized autophagy markers detected in the livers of APAP-treated mice were markedly reduced upon BGP-15 administration. This effect, along with the observed prevention of JNK activation likely contribute to the mitochondrial protective action of BGP-15.

Influence of BGP-15, a nicotinic amidoxime derivative, on the vascularization and growth of murine hepatoma xenografts.

Authors: Kardon T, Nagy G, Csala M, Kiss A, Schaff Z, Nagy PL, Wunderlich L, Bánhegyi G, Mandl J.
Publisher: Anticancer Res. 2006 Mar-Apr;26(2A):1023-8.

BACKGROUND: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key regulator of angiogenesis, is controlled by the oxygen supply. Previous observations suggested that nicotinic amidoxime derivatives (i.e. BGP-15) might interfere with the induction of hypoxia-sensitive genes. Hence, the effect of BGP-15 on angiogenesis was studied in Hepa 1c1c7 tumor xenografts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepa 1c1c7 hepatoma cells were implanted under the dorsal skin of female CD-1-nu/nu immunodeficient mice. One group of animals was given 100 mg/kg body weight/day BGP-15 intraperitoneally during tumor development. Vascularization, apoptotic and mitotic indices were determined by the histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the tumors. VEGF and GLUT-1 expressions were measured by Northern blot. RESULTS: The in vivo administration of BGP-15 resulted in a decrease in tumor weight and mitotic index, while it did not affect the apoptotic rate in the xenograft. Furthermore, BGP-15 treatment depressed microvascular density and the level of VEGF mRNA by 50%, and similarly decreased GLUT-1 mRNA levels. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that BGP-15 suppresses hepatoma development by affecting angiogenesis.

BGP-15, a hydroximic acid derivative, protects against cisplatin- or taxol-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats.

Authors: Bárdos G, Móricz K, Jaszlits L, Rabloczky G, Tory K, Rácz I, Bernáth S, Sümegi B, Farkas B, Literáti-Nagy B, Literáti-Nagy P.
Publisher: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2003 Jul 1;190(1):9-16.

The neuroprotective effect of BGP-15 against peripheral sensory neuropathy was studied in rats that were exposed to short-term cisplatin or taxol administration. The changes of nerve conduction velocity were determined in situ after treating the Wistar rats with BGP-15 (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg po daily doses throughout the experiment), cisplatin (1.5 mg/kg ip daily dose for 5 days), or taxol (5.0 mg/kg ip daily dose every other day in a 10-day interval) alone or giving the test compound in combination with cisplatin or taxol. Electrophysiological recordings were carried out in vivo by stimulating the sciatic nerve at both sciatic notch and ankle site. Neither motor nor sensory nerve conduction velocity was altered by any dose level of BGP-15 tested. Both anticancer drugs decreased the sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV). BGP-15 treatment prevented the impairment of SNCV either in part or totally in the cisplatin- or taxol-treated groups. This neuroprotective potential of BGP-15 could be well correlated with its recently described poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase- inhibitory effect and its ability to protect against the damages induced by the increased level of reactive oxygen species in response to anticancer treatment.

BGP-15 - a novel poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor - protects against nephrotoxicity of cisplatin without compromising its antitumor activity.

Authors: Racz I, Tory K, Gallyas F Jr, Berente Z, Osz E, Jaszlits L, Bernath S, Sumegi B, Rabloczky G, Literati-Nagy P.
Publisher: Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Mar 15;63(6):1099-111.

Nephrotoxicity is one of the major dose limiting side effects of cisplatin chemotherapy. The antitumor and toxic effects are mediated in part by different mechanisms, thus, permitting a selective inhibition of certain side effects. The influence of O-(3-piperidino-2-hydroxy-1-propyl)nicotinic amidoxime (BGP-15) - a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor - on the nephrotoxicity and antitumor efficacy of cisplatin has been evaluated in experimental models. BGP-15 either blocked or significantly reduced (60-90% in 100-200 mg/kg oral dose) cisplatin induced increase in serum urea and creatinine level in mice and rats and prevented the structural degeneration of the kidney, as well. The nephroprotective effect of BGP-15 treatment was revealed also in living mice by MRI analysis manifesting in the lack of oedema which otherwise developed as a result of cisplatin treatment. The protective effect was accompanied by inhibition of cisplatin-induced poly-ADP-ribosylation and by the restoration of the disturbed energy metabolism. The preservation of ATP level in the kidney was demonstrated in vivo by localized NMR spectroscopy. BGP-15 decreased cisplatin-induced ROS production in rat kidney mitochondria and improved the antioxidant status of the kidney in mice with cisplatin-induced nephropathy. In rat kidney, cisplatin caused a decrease in the level of Bcl-x, a mitochondrial protective protein, and this was normalized by BGP-15 treatment. On the other hand, BGP-15 did not inhibit the antitumor efficacy of cisplatin in cell culture and in transplantable solid tumors of mice. Treatment with BGP-15 increased the mean survival time of cisplatin-treated P-388 leukemia bearing mice from 13 to 19 days. PARP inhibitors have been demonstrated to diminish the consequences of free radical-induced damage, and this is related to the chemoprotective effect of BGP-15, a novel PARP inhibitor. Based on these results, we propose that BGP-15 represents a novel, non-thiol chemoprotective agent.

Reduction of acute photodamage in skin by topical application of a novel PARP inhibitor.

Authors: Farkas B, Magyarlaki M, Csete B, Nemeth J, Rabloczky G, Bernath S, Literáti Nagy P, Sümegi B.
Publisher: Biochem Pharmacol. 2002 Mar 1;63(5):921-32.

The ultraviolet (UV) components of sunlight induce damage to the DNA in skin cells, which is considered to be the initiating step in the harmful biological effects of UV radiation. Repair of DNA damage results in the formation of single-strand DNA breaks, which activate the nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Overactivation of PARP worsens the oxidative cell damage and impairs the energy metabolism, raising the possibility that moderation of PARP activation following DNA damage may protect skin cells from UV radiation. The topical effects of the novel PARP inhibitor O-(3-pyperidino-2-hydroxy-1-propyl) pyridine-3-carboxylic acid amidoxime monohydrochloride (BGP-15M) were investigated on UV-induced skin damage in a hairless mouse model. For evaluation of the UV-induced acute photodamage to the skin and the potential protective effect of BGP-15M, DNA injury was detected by measuring the formation of single-strand DNA breaks and counting the resulting sunburn (apoptotic) cells. The ADP-ribosylation of PARP was assessed by Western blot analysis and then quantified. In addition, the UV-induced immunosuppression was investigated by the immunostaining of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 expressions in epidermal cells. The signs of inflammation were examined clinically and histochemically. Besides its primary effect in decreasing the activity of nuclear PARP, topically applied BGP-15M proved to be protective against solar and artificial UV radiation-induced acute skin damage. The DNA injury was decreased (P<0.01). An inhibition of immunosuppression was observed by down-regulation of the epidermal production of cytokines IL-10 and TNFalpha. In the mouse skin, clinical or histological signs of UV-induced inflammation could not be observed. These data suggest that BGP-15M directly interferes with UV-induced cellular processes and modifies the activity of PARP. The effects provided by topical application of the new PARP-regulator BGP-15M indicate that it may be a novel type of agent in photoprotection of the skin.

Effect of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors on the ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative cell damage and mitochondrial metabolism in Langendorff heart perfusion system.

Authors: Halmosi R, Berente Z, Osz E, Toth K, Literati-Nagy P, Sumegi B.
Publisher: Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Jun;59(6):1497-505.

Ischemia-reperfusion induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and ROS lead to cardiac dysfunction, in part, via the activation of the nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP, called also PARS and ADP-RT). ROS and peroxynitrite induce single-strand DNA break formation and PARP activation, resulting in NAD(+) and ATP depletion, which can lead to cell death. Although protection of cardiac muscle by PARP inhibitors can be explained by their attenuating effect on NAD(+) and ATP depletion, there are data indicating that PARP inhibitors also protect mitochondria from oxidant-induced injury. Studying cardiac energy metabolism in Langendorff heart perfusion system by (31)P NMR, we found that PARP inhibitors (3-aminobenzamide, nicotinamide, BGP-15, and 4-hydroxyquinazoline) improved the recovery of high-energy phosphates (ATP, creatine phosphate) and accelerated the reutilization of inorganic phosphate formed during the ischemic period, showing that PARP inhibitors facilitate the faster and more complete recovery of the energy production. Furthermore, PARP inhibitors significantly decrease the ischemia-reperfusion-induced increase of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, single-strand DNA breaks, and the inactivation of respiratory complexes, which indicate a decreased mitochondrial ROS production in the reperfusion period. Surprisingly, PARP inhibitors, but not the chemically similar 3-aminobenzoic acid, prevented the H(2)O(2)-induced inactivation of cytochrome oxidase in isolated heart mitochondria, suggesting the presence of an additional mitochondrial target for PARP inhibitors. Therefore, PARP inhibitors, in addition to their important primary effect of decreasing the activity of nuclear PARP and decreasing NAD(+) and ATP consumption, reduce ischemia-reperfusion-induced endogenous ROS production and protect the respiratory complexes from ROS induced inactivation, providing an additional mechanism by which they can protect heart from oxidative damages.

BGP-15, a nicotinic amidoxime derivate protecting heart from ischemia reperfusion injury through modulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase.

Authors: Szabados E, Literati-Nagy P, Farkas B, Sumegi B.
Publisher: Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Apr 15;59(8):937-45.

The protective effect of O-(3-piperidino-2-hydroxy-1-propyl)nicotinic amidoxime (BGP-15) against ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury was studied in the Langendorff heart perfusion system. To understand the molecular mechanism of the cardioprotection, the effect of BGP-15 on ischemic-reperfusion-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation single-strand DNA break formation, NAD(+) catabolism, and endogenous ADP-ribosylation reactions were investigated. These studies showed that BGP-15 significantly decreased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase in reperfused hearts, and reduced the rate of NAD(+) catabolism. In addition, BGP-15 dramatically decreased the ischemia-reperfusion-induced self-ADP-ribosylation of nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase(PARP) and the mono-ADP-ribosylation of an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone GRP78. These data raise the possibility that BGP-15 may have a direct inhibitory effect on PARP. This hypothesis was tested on isolated enzyme, and kinetic analysis showed a mixed-type (noncompetitive) inhibition with a K(i) = 57 +/- 6 microM. Furthermore, BGP-15 decreased levels of ROS, lipid peroxidation, and single-strand DNA breaks in reperfused hearts. These data suggest that PARP may be an important molecular target of BGP-15 and that BGP-15 decreases ROS levels and cell injury during ischemia-reperfusion in the heart by inhibiting PARP activity.

Hydroximic acid derivatives: pleiotropic HSP co-inducers restoring homeostasis and robustness.

Authors: Crul T, Toth N, Piotto S, Literati-Nagy P, Tory K, Haldimann P, Kalmar B, Greensmith L, Torok Z, Balogh G, Gombos I, Campana F, Concilio S, Gallyas F, Nagy G, Berente Z, Gungor B, Peter M, Glatz A, Hunya A, Literati-Nagy Z, Vigh L Jr, Hoogstra-Berends F, Heeres A, Kuipers I, Loen L, Seerden JP, Zhang D, Meijering RA, Henning RH, Brundel BJ, Kampinga HH, Koranyi L, Szilvassy Z, Mandl J, Sumegi B, Febbraio MA, Horvath I, Hooper PL, Vigh L.
Publisher: Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19(3):309-46. Review.

According to the "membrane sensor" hypothesis, the membrane's physical properties and microdomain organization play an initiating role in the heat shock response. Clinical conditions such as cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases are all coupled with specific changes in the physical state and lipid composition of cellular membranes and characterized by altered heat shock protein levels in cells suggesting that these "membrane defects" can cause suboptimal hsp-gene expression. Such observations provide a new rationale for the introduction of novel, heat shock protein modulating drug candidates. Intercalating compounds can be used to alter membrane properties and by doing so normalize dysregulated expression of heat shock proteins, resulting in a beneficial therapeutic effect for reversing the pathological impact of disease. The membrane (and lipid) interacting hydroximic acid (HA) derivatives discussed in this review physiologically restore the heat shock protein stress response, creating a new class of "membrane-lipid therapy" pharmaceuticals. The diseases that HA derivatives potentially target are diverse and include, among others, insulin resistance and diabetes, neuropathy, atrial fibrillation, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. At a molecular level HA derivatives are broad spectrum, multi-target compounds as they fluidize yet stabilize membranes and remodel their lipid rafts while otherwise acting as PARP inhibitors. The HA derivatives have the potential to ameliorate disparate conditions, whether of acute or chronic nature. Many of these diseases presently are either untreatable or inadequately treated with currently available pharmaceuticals. Ultimately, the HA derivatives promise to play a major role in future pharmacotherapy.

A novel insulin sensitizer drug candidate-BGP-15-can prevent metabolic side effects of atypical antipsychotics.

Authors: Literati-Nagy Z, Tory K, Literáti-Nagy B, Kolonics A, Vígh L Jr, Vígh L, Mandl J, Szilvássy Z.
Publisher: Pathol Oncol Res. 2012 Oct;18(4):1071-6.

Weight gain and dysfunction of glucose and lipid metabolism are well-known side effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPD). Here, we address the question whether a heat-shock protein (HSP) co-inducer, insulin sensitizer drug candidate, BGP-15, can prevent AAPD-induced glucose, lipid, and weight changes. We also examined how an AAPD alters HSP expression and whether BGP-15 alters that expression. Four different experiments are reported on the AAPD BGP-15 interventions in a human trial of healthy men, a rodent animal model, and an in vitro adipocyte cell culture system. Olanzapine caused rapid insulin resistance in healthy volunteers and was associated with decreased level of HSP72 in peripheral mononuclear blood cells. Both changes were restored by the administration of BGP-15. In Wistar rats, weight gain and insulin resistance induced by clozapine were abolished by BGP-15. In 3T3L1 adipocytes, clozapine increased intracellular fat accumulation, and BGP-15 inhibited this process. Taken together, our results indicate that BGP-15 inhibits multiple metabolic side effects of atypical antipsychotics, and this effect is likely to be related to its HSP co-inducing ability.